Day 60 - Bush League: We're better than bad
Well tonight was excellent weather through Tanzania. Our group is exceptionally good at bending metal. Thanks for being such a fun group of people. These single weekly flights are making me miss hanging out so I am personally really looking forward to getting back to twice a week this fall. We arrived in Ngerengere and will be on our way to the base of Mount Kilimanjaro. Africa was an epic place and is almost in our rearview mirror. All of you are machines for sticking around and making this adventure around the world happen. See you soon!
Day 59 - NOTE TO SELF
Never update video card drivers before a live stream. I wish I would take my own advice. Lake Malawi has some pretty cool mountain terrain and some rather interesting airport too.
Day 58 - TWISTED METAL!
Well that break from flying was way longer than expected. We missed you guys so much. It felt really good to be back. We flew through The north end of Mozambique and ended up at Monkey Bay in Malawi. After several absolutely devastating deadstick landings many of us ended with extremely high insurance premiums and should probably lose our license. See you on Day 59 as we continue up the eastern cost of Africa.
Day 57 - PIDGEON DONATES, WIFE DIVORCES
You guys really are too much. Each and every one of you takes time out of you day to join us in tackling an absolutely massive project. We cannot say it enough but thank you! Thank you! Thank you! We made our way across Zimbabwe with a few touch and goes in Zambia. We're in a slow down for the summer months so starting Day 59 we'll be Mondays only for 'The Journey' until September. We want to be sure all of you get ample time to spend the summer getting out and doing what you love. Once fall and winter creep back into our live we\ll be back to two days a week. See you on Day 58 for more adventures!
Day 56 - SMOKE and a PANCAKE
A bit of flat land cruising today in Mozambique. But we made it to Zimbabwe at the end. It will have some nice mountain terrain for the next day. Expect more animal spotting and interesting landscapes.
Day 55 - Warm milk and Cold beer
Had another good day making our way up the east side of Madagascar. Always some interesting sights on the way. One of the most fun parts of 'The Journey' is spending time with friends and exploring places we likely never would have visited. We've officially dropped off our rentals and will be on our flight back to Paradise Island for the weekend. See you next time!
Day 54 - FIREFLIES
I think the guys who rented out these machines to us might be a little upset at the mess some of you are making. Good fun along the way. It really makes us appreciate the performance of our bush planes. We'll spend a couple of days here in Antsirabe. Day 55 we will plan to finish our tour of Madagascar on the North of the island. See you soon!
Day 53 - T-PLANE
You just never know what tricks Super has up his sleeves. Long haul tonight up the coast of Mozambique. We made it to Paradise Island after a short race across the water. Make sure you tie down and clean out your XCub as our boat trip across to Madagascar will take us to our departure airport for a two day flight to explore the island. Your choice of aircraft. Keep in mind we will still be visiting smaller strips along the way. Something with a reasonable cruise speed of 110+ is a good idea.
Day 52 - Fuuuuuuuuu
The first half of this leg is like flying over Kansas. But it soon reveals some pretty spectacular mountain areas and sandy shoreline. We're now in Mozambique and will spend the next day getting up the coast. Then we will park our XCubs and hop over to Madagascar on a charter flight. We will then pick up a variety of partially serviceable aircraft for the next two days to explore.
Day 51 - WHISTLE WHILE YOU WORK
Lesotho was incredible. The whole kingdom is enveloped in mountainous areas. It is a bush pilots paradise. If you have never explored we highly recommend it. Most of the terrain was mountain until the border with South Africa. At that point it turned to farm land as far as the eye could see. We made it mostly unscathed to Johannesburg. Enjoy your visit and we'll see you next time!
Day 50.5 - it's a GOOD LUCK DRAGON - You uncultureD SWINE
After technical issues smashed our first attempt to fly day 50 we were able to make it through relatively unscathed on attempt number 2. Bad weather made the first portion tricky. With improved ceilings and visibility we were able to continue without issue. Along the way I think many of us missed some of the spectacular views because we were so focused on finding out how few classic movies Hutch has actually seen. It was a good time and what we missed in views we made up for in laughter.
Day 49 - ONLY FANS
Pigpen put your dress back on! We had a nice easy flight today zig zagging while we explored shoreline and inland mountains. It's a pretty varied and spectacular landscape. You could spend months exploring this area. We we missing Hutch today as he was trying to figure out why his chickens crossed the road. But alas he never found the answer. See you guys for day 50 as we depart Plettenberg Bay.
Day 48 - CAPE TOWN
After so many hours and miles we made it to the bottom of the African Continent. South Africa has spectacular variation in terrain. We had a good visit at the top of Tabletop Mountain just west of the Cape Town. In typical Bush League fashion we surrounded the closest airliner and demanded they had over their snack bar. See you soon to begin our journey back up the East coast.
Day 47 - Am I Glowing?
CharlieFoxtrot00 again planned a fantastic day 47. We had a great couple of river runs and some fun mountain top landings. We're spending the night in Vaalputs. A nuclear waste storage facility. Questionable choice, but interesting none the less. We'll be taking a break and be back to fly day 48 to Cape Town, South Africa.
Day 46 - Namibia is showing her stuff
CharlieFoxtrot00 Did an epic job of planning day 46. We got stuck in low visibility for a while. It is rainy season after all and to be expected. Once we broke out near the desert the views were epic. Namibia is such an amazing place to fly. We'll be at it again on day 47 and may very well end up in South Africa by the end of the flight. Hope to see you there.
Day 45 - LA LA LA and other random noises
Day 2 in Namibia didn't disappoint. It's a pretty incredible place. Made the boys work for their fuel tonight. We were near fumes on our second to last leg. Good to force these guys to work for it once in a while. We'll be ready for Day 46 after our camp out. CharlieFoxtrot00 is planning Day 46 and 47. We are very likely to reach South Africa very soon!
Day 44 - SO MUCH EPIC
Terrain changes were incredible today. Thanks to Merlin for the flightplan. We started off in The deserts of southern Angola and made our way across some epic sand dunes. Then we flew the river dividing Angola and Namibia. Namibia turned into some spectacular mountain ranges and forested areas. We are looking really forward to exploring more of Namibia on day 45. See you then.
Day 43 - Mountain man
The terrain in Angola is rapidly changing. We are planning to be in Namibia by the end of the next flight. Some of us managed to land on the top of a mountain en-route to the final airport. What an epic view with thunderstorms surrounding the summit. We always find some good gems.
Day 42 - DOGGOS EVERYWHERE
All of you have some good looking animals in your lives. We tackled many miles again and are just a couple of flights away from Namibia! Thanks for continuing to explore the world with us. So many adventures ahead! The next couple of weeks will be new flight planners. Time to shake things up and see what adventures they take us on!
Day 41 - draw me like one of your french girls!
Many of our followers are now trying to imagine what Jer look like while flying the sim. Cashmere scarf, check. Monocle, check. Eats fancy biscotti, check. Let's see what masterpiece's you guys come up with! We had a few thunderstorms around. It was an easy night as we finished off in Noumbi. Next day we will continue pushing towards Angola and then Namibia. The views and terrain is about to change drastically.
Day 40 - Southern HEMISPHERE!
Today we landed at the summit of Mount Cameroon. What an epic view from more than 13,000ft. We continued south tracking through Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and finally arrived just a couple of miles south of the equator in Gabon. This journey would not be the same without all the friends we've made along the way. Welcome to the southern hemisphere!
Day 39 - Welcome to 1-800-FIX-MYPC
That was a long one. Not much interesting terrain as we make our way across Nigeria. Great weather and nothing to look at. Seems like most of the crew is pretty beat. Will be good to take a break and refresh on the leg south. We're making great progress each week and will be in Namibia and South Africa before you know it!
Day 38 - CANADIAN SNOWBALLS
Today was a bit of an off track flight. We headed inland along a ridgeline to enjoy some true bush flying. Along the way for some reason Super got a request to see a real Canadian snowball. He delivered and decided to eat it dirt and all. Oh the things he'll do for views. ;-) We made it to Lagos with the last 50 miles low level over the river. Always enjoy the company and hope to see you guys for more adventures on day 39!
Day 37 - Don't forget to floss!
We hammered out a long stretch without many breaks. 369NM tonight. Did we just be come brand ambassadors for Oral-B and Sensodyne? See what happens when Super takes 5 minutes off camera and leaves the rest of us to take over! We'll be resting here in Accra until day 38 when we head inland for some bush strips. See you then.
Day 36 - CAN'T SHAKE 'EM
We've made it to The Ivory Coast. Early morning thunderstorms gave us quite the show. But dissipated into isolated rain showers for most of the way. As is becoming tradition the last leg was a low level flight . With Carbon at the lead he tried as hard as he could to lose the crowd in the chase. But no luck. Maybe next time.
Day 35 - Trash PANDA
This was a fun spot to explore. Shoreline was full of great spots to land. We flew past Freetown and finished the flight near Monrovia. Everyone got to witness the unveiling of the STOLverlord. Not what you expected I suspect. Those of you who have spent your hard earned money on the stream it is difficult for us to know how to thank you properly. We are committed to investing everything back into the community and we hope that you continue to enjoy our time together every week as much as we do.
Day 34 - SUPER's EPIC WIN
5 Dead sticks and Super made it through every single one! What is going on here? We had a great time discovering some new terrain and made our way to the coast. It's always surprising the terrain we encounter on these flights. The Earth is a fantastic place. More fun on the way!
Day 33 - Balloons and CRONCH
We had a special guest Aus Flight Simmer drop into the stream. Was nice to see someone we enjoy watching drop by. We started out with less than 3/4 tanks and needed to cover some miles before fuel was available at our stop at Dag Dag. Everyone managed fuel well and made it without issue. Super found what we thing is a meteor impact site. Made it into Sadiola Gold Mine and will remain here until day 34.
Day 32 - EYEBALLS and DEHYDRATED GIRAFFES
Another easy flight today over Mauritania. Found our way over to the Richat structure for an amazing view of this very unique geological feature. We stopped off a few miles away to regroup and then continued on our way. Time to camp at Letfotar and rest up for the push back out of the desert.
Day 31 - THAT'S SAND... and MORE SAND
It had to be done. Leaving the Canary Islands we had a straight shot to the shoreline of about 160NM. At least we saw the sunrise! After that we were greeted with hundreds of miles of sand and desert. The Western Sahara is an unforgiving landscape. We need to be on our toes and look out for one another. Another few days of punching a hole right through the middle of this place and we'll be on to the jungles. Good job on getting through this.
Day 30 - I AM NOT IN A CULT
We had a nice early morning start on the edge of the Sahara. Making our way south and then crossed to the first of three islands in the Canary's. We had some unexpected awesome terrain to fly and landed in the caldera of a volcano. We ended the day by landing on the top of the highest mountain at 12500ft. Ended the day as planned in GCTS. See you soon for day 31.
Day 29 - WET-N-WILD
Although there was a chance of thunderstorms before departure we were not quire prepared for the amount of bad weather enroute today. Amazing ILS approach in some of the worst weather we've seen in sim. Then at our arrival in GMAT we had incredible weather and a good time flying low level and fast. Good work guys. See you on day 30!
Day 28 - Morocco?...yes please.
Our first flight back since the holiday break. What another epic ride! We got to see central Morocco and the absolutely amazing mountain ranges and other worldly scenery.
Day 27 - BIG ROCKS AND FORMATION FLYING
Merry Christmas! Happy Holidays! We left Portugal and made a little tour around Gibraltar. I would highly recommend visiting. From there we headed south to the north of Africa into Morocco. Was the las stream of 2020 and we're going to miss you guys. The new year isn't too far away though. See you in the skies.
Day 26 - ERIC DOES THE DEED
Thank you to SbEric407 on twitch for stepping in to stream for us today! We had a great time as we always do. With great weather and light winds we made our way to the Atlantic coast of Portugal. It was a nice easy scenic flight. The last day in Portugal as we continue past Gibraltar and head to Morocco in North Africa. The adventure is only just beginning.
Day 25 - Pizza Party
Why is it every time we're in the middle of nowhere we have to talk about pizza? Now it's midnight and I'm hungry. Enjoy your pizza Hutch. We pushed our way through 376NM on Spain and made it to Portugal. We'll spend the night camping here and make our way west and explore some oceanside sights. Until then keep the blue side up! Or don't...
Day 24 - SPANISH FLY
No one expects a Spanish Inquisition. But you can always expect a deadstick landing. We started with some challenging weather in the Mountains over Andorra. Then kept pushing south to Spain. We ended in our planned spot Castell de Castells. It's a stunning view. We can't wait to continue exploring.
Day 23 - Prison riot!
Don't panic. We were just testing our ability to land on a prison roof. No big deal! We had dead stick landings all over the place and made for the normal chaos we've come to expect. We've made it to the border of Spain and will be will on our way into exploring all the secrets it has to offer up.
Day 22 - NIce, Nice.
The French Alps is pretty incredible. There is such a wide variety of terrain and airfields. Spectacular! We made it to Nice and will rest here for the weekend. Enjoy your stay. See you again as we continue 'The Journey'
Day 21 - Paris amazing. Deadsticks, Not so Much
Another great turnout and loads of fun flying past Paris. Seeing some of the famous sites. The Eiffel tower was fun. We had quite a few dead stick landings courtesy of our Twitch viewers. Near the end we ended up several bent airplanes. Courchevel was awesome. Overcast with light snow and lights winds. Let's see what Thursday has in store for us!
Day 20 - History in these hills
Good luck with the weather today. We lifted off from London City airport as the sun rose over the horizon. Heading south along the shore we past the cliffs of Dover. From there crossing to Dunkirk we had time to think about and remember the sacrifice and loss made on those north shores of France. From there we made it to the river Seine and had a good time running for miles until breaking off and heading to the last couple of stops. Paris and on to Courchevel next!
Day 19 - rocks and river racing
We finally got a break in the weather today. Past Cardiff on our way to Lundy Island we made some stops on the amazing beaches that spot the shoreline. Then the group slowly found the way across the countryside; explored the southern coast and its beaches and had a few unscheduled landings along the way. Stonehenge was epic and we got some impressive group shots. Eventually worked our way north of London and then followed the River Thames to London City Airport. From there the race began. We had some fierce competition trying to be the victor of the Thames River run. In the end Bruno managed to reach the finish line unscathed. Pigpen awarded him a Bush League Legends T-Shirt. What an awesome gift for the community! So for now we take a break and prepare for Paris. See you all soon.
Day 18 - how many engine failures?
We started off having not so great weather. But overall the conditions were quite good. We had awesome views of Manchester and Liverpool and were able to experience some fun country strips. Can anyone figure out the actual real world probability of having 5 engine failures in one afternoon? Everyone is going to be a master of dead sticking by the time we are done this. Fantastic fun guys. See you soon for our flight to London!
Day 17 - Ireland we love you!
A little rain and wind was expected. After a short while Ireland finally showed us some blue sky. Ireland is stunning. Definitely a place to spend some time exploring. It was a fairly expensive day with 6 or 7 pilots who bit the dust. We ended at Slieve Croob tonight and look forward to checking out Wales and England next. Stay tuned for more adventures with the Bush League Legends.
Day 16 - WINDY WINDY WINDY
This group is borderline insane! Who flies in this kind of Irish weather? High winds and low visibility. We made some awesome landings along the way and discovered that those who dare don't always win. All we can hope for is better weather for Day 17!
DAY 15 - CRASH, BANG, BOOM
Come on CARBON! Pay attention. Simply put I did an unintended landing while looking at the live stream. Not a good way to start a day. Then SUPER stepped away from his keyboard. We all know how that one plays out. Rising terrain and autopilot don't mix. Some good adventures landing on beaches and just making a general nuisance of ourselves. We made it to Crumlin in Northern Ireland and said goodbye for now. See you in a few days for more adventure!
Day 14 - Fog, Poutine and forced landings
Leaving Inverness was typical Scottish foggy weather. Not surprising for the first while. But by the time we made it Glasgow things started to improve and for whatever reason poutine was on the menu. How do these conversations start? Thanks to the new community vote we now have forced landings and engine failures. The punishment livery was out in full force with damage and destruction everywhere. Yes that's correct. Anyone can use their Twitch points to shut down the whole operation! Thanks to our viewers for the constant Damocles sword hanging over our heads. We made it to Benbecula where we were greeted with reasonable weather and a nice bed to sleep in. See you on day 15!
Day 13 - no lack of luck
Vagar was partly cloudy with enough of a wind to make the start of our day a death defying exercise in crosswind takeoffs. We had a good time cruising and chatting. Then we finally made it. Wick parted the fog and let us in with open arms. Easy winds and no icing. Then in short order we all got airborne again and headed to Inverness. Enjoying the land beneath for our over confident landing abilities. We all made it! Scotland here we come!
Day 12 - PUFFINS and SHEEP
Thanks Jer for the always interesting facts about the places we visit. Who knew sheep would need reflectors. No Puffins still don't actually exist! Was a fun start to the flight as CarbonProp decided to be a dumb dumb and stalled a wing while landing uphill and had an unfortunate accident. We all followed up with a landing on a mountain peak and then dove off the side in a ride only the Bush League Legends could appreciate. We then made our way across the last piece of the Atlantic to Vagar in the Faroe Islands. Next stop Scotland!
Day 11 - EPIC EVERY TIME
Some absolutely stunning areas in Iceland. I think it ended up on may people's bucket list of places to see in the world. What a good playground to have in your backyard. Day 12 will be a quick sightseeing tour on the east coast and then crossing the water to the Faroe Islands. Outstanding flying everyone!
DAy 10 - Outstanding views
We tackled so many new areas in one day! Iceland has incredible terrain that would make any bush pilot jealous. With light winds and great weather we headed north out of Reykjavik, around the northwest then finished up at Akureyri. We all discovered some new areas I'm sure many of us will return to. So day 10 is done after some intense hand flying. However we still get one more day of exploring Iceland.
DAy 9 - Those Who Dare
It was borderline crazy to depart in those conditions! We had a moment where it looked like it was over before it started. But being the crazy bunch we are decided to try going for it. Those who dare win. We made it! All the way across the North Atlantic to Iceland. Reykjavik welcomed us with good weather and light winds. The next two days are going to be fun. Lots of exploring the shores and interior of Iceland. Well done!
Day 8 - It could have been worse
We certainly expected day 8 to get scrubbed. The remnants of hurricane Teddy were on our doorstep! But after monitoring the situation all day we we able to launch north bound for Kulusuk. It ended badly for some who followed a mountain pass that took them into icing. But a good learning experience for everyone involved. After that is was smooth sailing along the eastern coast of Greenland. Day 9 is just around the corner and we will be on our way to Iceland.
DAY 7 - THe Long HAUL
We departed early morning from Goose Bay with a good tail wind. Fortunately the weather held off for the entire flight. Other than a long lonely view of the ocean and the periodic flyby of A320s and 747s it was uneventful. Congratulations to all of you for completing the crossing to Greenland. It's not something many people have done. We had such a successful turnout for a day we thought would be a bit boring. So much fun! Can't wait for day 8!
Day 6- #ICRASHED
The look on Super's face as he walks back onto the stream witnessing his beloved XCub impact the trees. What a good laugh and a good time with friends. We had another awesome turnout for the flight to Goose Bay. The winds were wicked and fun was had low level on the river. Thanks to all of you for making this a success. We can not wait for Day 7 when the crossing starts! See you there.
Photo by Blitzkrieg-lg
Day 5 - Blackouts and big hills
Well that was interesting! Lots of odd challenges on day 5. Many folks couldn't see other multiplayer users, Carbon had a power outage and Hutch nearly performed his first CFIT (Controlled Flight Into Terrain). Even after all of the headaches the Bush League Legends had to endure most were able to make it to Stephenville. Thanks to all of you who participated and made the crossing with us. Next up is Goose Bay! See you there legends.
Photo by Holocene
DAY 4 - FOG IS NOT YOUR FRIEND
After departing KPVC the absolutely massive group of Bush League pilots headed over Boston to see the sights as best they could. Visibility and ceilings were not our friend. We slowly made it up the east coast and sent ourselves offshore to Matinicus Island. Where the weather tried to keep us out. But we all prevailed. Landing on both the North and South Islands for some great photo ops. We then continued enroute and arrived at CCB6 in poor conditions. Visibility was down and the sun had set. We all opted to stay overnight in CYZX and will make our way back to CCB6 for day 5 of 'The Journey'.
WEEK 2 HIGHLIGHTS
Put together by Bush League member Jer this video gives a little glimpse into the massive fun we get to have twice a week while travelling the world.
DAy 3 - New york state of mind
My apologies for not getting these summaries up sooner. The group set flight out of Gap View headed towards New York. We had a fun time seeing the sights and then breaking all of the rules by landing in Central Park. Heart pounding fun! We continued during sunset into the early night to Provincetown where we stayed for the customary drone photo. Everyone is pumped for Day 4! Happening on September 10, 2020. Hope to see you there!
Day 2 - Hidden treasures
Scott's Island Airport was overcast and not looking like the nicest weather again today. We made it over to Yeager and refueled for the journey north. We made it to the Ohio river and flew low level to Pittsburgh. Did a quick city tour and continued on our way. Making brief stops at various airstrips enroute. Shortly before sunset we made it to Gap View. What an awesome flight with with a great group. See you on day 3!
Day 1 - First Flight
August 31, 2020 - What an outstanding turnout for our first leg around the world! We are so thankful for your support and can't wait to see you again. There was challenging weather part way through the flight. Once we made it to the Kanawha River we really started having some fun. Well done to all of you who made it to Scott's Island. More exciting events are on the way! Catch us Thursday September 3, 2020 for the next leg from WV08 to 49PA. Both sceneries are available in the addons section. Thanks again to our community members and our sponsors Best Tugs and CubCrafters. See you soon!
Ready to ROLL
We've officially made it to First Flight Airport. With a quick fuel stop in Elizabeth City this evening. We'll be hanging out in the area until Monday. Then launch back towards Scotts Island (WV08). Continuing towards the east coast again. We'll be pushing to cross the Atlantic before freezing levels get too low and winds get too high. The excitement is high to start this massive undertaking. See you soon!
August 26, 2020
Jer was kind enough to collect footage and edit the trailer for 'The Journey'. Just a glimpses of the epic flights we are planning.
UPDATE - AUGUST 23, 2020
We've made the first step to starting "The Journey" on August 31, 2020. After Carbon flew from the east coast of Canada to Brantford, Ontario on livestream. Jer, Super and Carbon flew to Chicago Midway to meet up with Hutch. Hutch had previously flown in to Midway from Salt Lake City, Utah. After the flying was completed they officially had their xCub's repainted for the world flight. We're proudly displaying our community sponsors Cub Crafters and Best Tugs.
Our next step is to fly to KFFA together to officially begin "The Journey". Be sure to follow along on this epic adventure.
Update - August 12, 2020
Updated August 15, 2020 - New departure date! We're getting going earlier than expected. Now August 31, 2020 from KFFA.
Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen! Welcome on board your flight to see the world. Please sit tight, enjoy the ride. We welcome you on this epic adventure.
In just a few short weeks the team will be headed off on a massive flight around the globe in our CubCrafters XCub. We are beginning 'The Journey' on August 31, 2020. Departing from KFFA (First Flight Airport) where the memorial for the achievements of the Wright brothers stands proudly. During our journey we are trying to seek out some of the most unusual and iconic airports around the world. This is no small task. We have a team of people working diligently to ensure all avenues of our adventure are covered. From fuel to weight, cost and weather, every detail needs to be planned. For myself I have years of real world flight experience in very different environments. Years of bush flying on ice covered lakes, grass, dirt and gravel strips to the asphalt of some of North Americas busiest airports. Hopefully I have what it takes to lead the group safely to our return home.
We would love to see more of you join us on our social media channels and stay in touch as we plan to have community events along the way for all of you to join in the fun! If you love general aviation, bush flying and adventure you're in the right place and with the right company.
The team feels extremely fortunate to have both Best Tugs and CubCrafters on board to provide our community members with some awesome prizes. In the initial stages of design we weren't necessarily optimistic about having sponsors to help out. But these two awesome companies who produce products we truly admire stepped up and put their trust in our abilities to represent their brand. They are helping to ensure this is a great event for everyone. So we can never thank them enough for their support.
We will see you soon,
David (AKA Carbon)
Each stage of a real world flight needs to be accounted for. From survival gear to tents and food. These items will be a part of the final takeoff weight of each aircraft. Below is a list of equipment each pilot will carry on board. We will attempt to achieve the highest level of realism we can. To cross the North Atlantic there are equipment requirements in Canada and Greenland regulations. Here is a list of some of the items onboard.
Coastal Compact Raft with emergency flares, food and water - 22lbs
Dry Suit - 4lbs
High-mountain protection tent - 10lbs
65L Backpack - 22lbs
Food and Water - 32lbs
Satellite Phone and HF Radio - 3lb
Repair Kit - 7lbs
25 Gallon Fuel Bladder - 11lbs (empty)